Christian Unity
John 17: 21a May they all be one, as You, Father, are in Me and I am in You. (HCSB)


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Friday, February 17, 2006
  Command, Example, and Necessary Inference
Note: Click here for the complete series on hermeneutics of the churches of Christ.

During the 20th century, the foundation for the doctrines of churches of Christ was a hermeneutic known as Command, Example, and Necessary Inference (CENI). This approach holds that there are three different ways that scripture authoritatively communicates the will of God. First, there are explicit commands ("Repent and be baptized..."). Second, there are examples / approved precedents ("Paul and Barnabas appointed elders for them in each church"). Third, there are necessary inferences ("On the first day of every week, each one of you should set aside a sum of money in keeping with his income, saving it up, so that when I come no collections will have to be made." Therefore, there must have been an assembly every first day of the week. And therefore we are obligated to do the same). According to CENI, if a teaching is found in any of these three forms in scripture, we are obligated to obey it.

In principle, deriving biblical authority from direct commands is relatively non-controversial.

Most would also agree that where we see an approved precedent for a practice in scripture, that practice would be approved for us as well. Binding an approved precedent as an authoritative command is perhaps more controversial.

Deriving biblical authority from necessary inferences, on the other hand, has always been quite controversial.

In Thomas Campbell's sixth proposition of the Declaration and Address, he stated that inferences and deductions from scripture are not binding on an individual beyond his current understanding, and therefore such inferences may not be used as terms of communion.

Thomas Campbell's son Alexander originally opposed the idea of binding inferences from scripture, though his position seems to have shifted as the years progressed. There are many instances where his writings imply that necessary inference is a less satisfactory proof than a command or an example.

Two of Alexander Campbell's students, J. W. McGarvey and Moses Lard, began to uphold the authority of necessary inferences around the middle of the 1800's. Others, including David Lipscomb, strongly resisted the idea. But by 1880, the binding of necessary inferences was well established in the conservative wing of the Restoration Movement. Some quotes from the notable proponents at that time:
...the reformation consists in an effort to induce all the truly pious in Christ to become perfectly joined together in the same mind, and in the same judgment, by accepting as doctrine, precisely and only what is either actually asserted or necessarily implied in the Bible; to speak the same things by speaking what the Bible speaks, and to speak them in the language of the Bible; and to practice the same things by doing simply the will of Christ. Moses Lard, Lard's Quarterly, 1864
We have solemnly covenanted that whatever cannot be clearly shown to have the sanction of this standard shall be held as not doctrine, and shall not be practiced. ...To warrant the holding of a doctrine or practice it must be shown that it has the affirmative or positive sanction of this standard, and not merely that it is not condemned by it. Either it must be actually asserted or necessarily implied or it must be positively backed by some divinely approved precedent, otherwise it is not even an item in Christianity, and is therefore, when it is attempted to be made a part of it, criminal and wrong. Moses Lard, Lard's Quarterly, 1864
The loudest call that comes from heaven to the men of this generation is for warfare, stern, relentless, merciless, exterminating, against everything not expressly or by necessary implication authorized in the New Testament. J W McGarvey, The Millennial Harbinger, 1868
I have been taught all my life that the Scriptures teach ‘by precept by approved apostolic example and by necessary inference,’ and it is certain that this is correct....I am sure it is safe to do as they did; I am not certain it is safe to do any other way. James Harding, 1901
These men were all men of great integrity and scholarship. Had they stopped short of binding their inferences on others, I believe their positions would have been noble and right. But I believe that the theological battles of their day led them to the binding of examples and necessary inferences. In doing so they abandoned an important part of the call to unity from the Declaration and Address of 1809. And the result has been many divisions in the church.

I want to study more on this subject. The scriptures themselves do contain instructions and examples of how to properly apply the scriptures. I believe a lot can be learned by examining how Jesus and the apostles used scripture.


Thanks for writing this!

I was googling on CENI doctrine and found your blog. I was searching for it based on some writing I was reading from Batsell Barrett Baxter on the authority of scripture.

After reading his writing and this blog I have to question the premise of "scriptural authority" as test. The scripture given by BB Baxter was Matt 21:23. In this scripture Jesus refuses to give the authority for His teaching. This doesn't seem to prove the case for specific "scriptural authority" upon which CENI is based.

BTW, I am a CofC'er of sorts but I question the re-interpretation of the restoration movement to bind things.

Would love to hear your follow-up!
Hi John,

In case you didn't find the link to my series on restoration hermeneutics, here it is.

I'll take a look at the Baxter article and post some comments in a day or two. Thanks for the link!
Ok I've read the Baxter article. He begins with a premise I do not accept--namely, that we require authorization for everything we do. The middle portion of the article argues an uncontested point, namely, that the only source of authority available today is the Bible. He then points to Zwingli's and Luther's opposing positions on the silence of the scriptures.

Finally he offers a couple of scriptures in an attempt to support his position that silence prohibits. But the two scriptures he offers, Gal 1:8 and 2 John 9, do not address the silence of the scriptures.

Gal 1:8 warns against introducing a new gospel ("good news"), that is, additional requirements for salvation (in this context, circumcision and the Law of Moses). That is what constituted "another gospel". And the context of 2 John 9 refers to people who do not acknowledge that Jesus came in the flesh. These two passages address specific, extreme examples of false teaching about the nature of Jesus and salvation. Neither passage addresses the silence of the scriptures.

In that article and elsewhere, the arguments I've seen on that side of the issue consistently take scripture out of context and try to make them say something other than what the original writer was communicating to the original readers.
In Matthew 21:23 (and surrounding), the issue is not that Jesus refused to give authority for his teaching. By asking them to answer whether the Baptism of John was from God or from men, before he would answer them, Jesus was demanding they first show whether they recognized the authority of God when they were faced with it.
I read your outline of Baxter's treatment on the subject. He used Galatians 1:8 as an example and you say it is not an example of necessary inference. But you very surely can infer from Galatians 1:8 that some teachings are cursed. Calvin's TULIP is contrary to what Paul preached and is cursed. Would that not be an example for Galatians 1:8?
Hi DM,

Paul defined the gospel as Jesus dying for our sins, bein buried, and his being raised from the dead (1 Cor 15). If someone preaches salvation on some basis other than that (ie, some different gospel,) then the curse Paul wrote in Gal 1:8 would apply to that person.
Hi Alan,
So Baxter was right? I would have to conclude that distorting the Gospel extended beyond this general definition of the Gospel and would also include the kinds of errors which the Judaizers introduced in the Galatian churches and beyond.
No, go back and read what Baxter said. He supported Zwingli's position on silence, and generalized Gal 1:8 to apply to those topics.

What Paul addressed in Gal 1:8 is the same thing I said in my previous comment. In his case, the different "gospel" was salvation through circumcision and the law -- which is a different gospel from what Paul defined in 1 Cor 15.
Greetings Alan Rouse,
The concept of authority depends upon the fact that God is Lord. If we do something in the name of God, then we should have authority for it. If it wasn't in God's name, I don't suppose it would matter. In the 21:23 reference, Jesus reasoned: "from heaven or from men?" In doing so, he acknowledged this principle. John's baptism was in the name of God and therefore if legitimate, it required a "from heaven" origin. Since Christians profess Jesus is Lord, we look to our Lord for that which He desires of us, Col 3:17. ED
Great article.

I have been a member for a long time of the churches of Christ and never really bought the CENI approach to interpretation, something clearly invented by some of the restoration movement. While God is the obvious authority of all things spiritual, He never mentions that His authority must be understood through CENI.
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Name: Alan Rouse
Home: Georgia, United States
About Me: I've been a Christian since being baptized in 1976 at the Brooks Avenue Church of Christ in Raleigh, NC. I currently serve as an elder in the Atlanta Church of Christ in Gwinnett. You can email me at blogger[at]rouses[dot]net About my beliefs
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